Faculty Directory

William Acres

William Acres

Position: Assistant Professor
Email: wacres@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 80153
Office: LWH 2250
Office Hours: By Appointment

Research Interests

Professor Acres is current research is focused on "The Burghley Letters," and two other monographs: "Sir Robert Cecil and the Idea of Britain" CUP.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 1401 (Summer) Modern Europe 1715 to Present: Conflict and Transformation


Nancy Christie

Nancy Christie

Position: Adjunct Research Professor
Email: nchrist8@uwo.ca


Research Interests

Professor Christie is a cultural historian with a primary interest in the history of gender, the state, the history of consumption, the history of political thought, and the history of the British empire\transatlantic world.

Currently Teaching:

Doctoral Level supervisory privileges


Timothy Compeau

Timothy Compeau

Position: Assistant Professor
Email: tcompeau@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84988
Office: LWH 2245
Office Hours:  Thursdays 1:00-3:00pm

Research Interests

Professor Compeau researches the cultural history of colonial North America and the Atlantic World with a special interest in honour culture and loyalism in the American Revolution. He also explores the application of augmented reality technology for public history.

Currently Teaching:

 HIS 9808A - Digital Public History (restricted)


Shauna Devine

Shauna Devine

Position: Adjunct Research Professor
Email: sdevine7@uwo.ca

Professor Devine's research and teaching interests focus on the social, cultural and military history of the United States, particularly the Civil War era, with a special interest in medicine and science during and after the war. Her first book, Learning from the Wounded: The Civil War and the Rise of American Medical Science. (The University of North Carolina Press, 2014), examines the work of doctors who served in the Union Medical Department, and explores how their innovations in the midst of crisis transformed northern medical education and gave rise to the healing power of modern health science. Professor Devine's next research project tentatively entitled Science and the Practice of Medicine in the Civil War South and Reconstruction examines medical practice in the Civil War south, which will be published as a companion volume to her work on medical practice in the north. She  is also working on two commissioned works from the United States Army Medical Department in conjunction with the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, which examine the larger impact of war on American medicine. 


Michael Dove
- Internship Coordinator, M.A. Public History Program

Michael Dove

Position: Assistant Professor
Email: mdove2@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84996
Office: LWH 1207
Office Hours: Mondays 12:00-2:00pm

Research Interests

Professor Dove's research revolves around the social and economic history of the maritime world, with a special interest in the commercial trading companies that operated during the Early Modern Period (c. 1500-1800).

Currently Teaching:

HIS 2188B - Pirates & Piracy on the World’s Seas and in the Public Imagination
HIS 3813E - Public History (Summer)
HIS 3813E - Public History


Marta Dyczok

Marta Dyczok

Position: Associate Professor
Email: mdyczok@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84982
Office: LWH 2246
Office Hours: Thursdays 10:00am-12:00 pm or by appointment

Research Interests

Professor Dyczok specializes in international politics and history, with a focus on East Central Europe and Eurasia, and specifically Ukraine. Her research interests are on the politics of history, mass media, migration, post-communism and World War II.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 2423F - Russia and Ukraine: Past and Present
HIS 3420F - The Soviet Experiment
HIS 9409B - Europe and the Politics of Power

Doctoral Level supervisory privileges


Devon Elliott

Lloyd Langston

Position: Lecturer
Email: dellio4@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. TBA
Office: TBA
Office Hours:

Research Interests

TBA

Currently Teaching:

HIS9832B Interactive Exhibit Design


James Flath

James Flath

Position: Professor
Email: jflath@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84989
Office: LWH 2234
Office Hours: on Sabbatical July - Dec 2017

Research Interests

Professor James Flath’s current research interests concentrate on modern Chinese cultural history. His first book The Cult of Happiness looked at the world of the North China village through the medium of folk print (nianhua). Prof. Flath's latest project, Traces of the Sage, indulges his ongoing interest in Chinese historical commemoration and heritage conservation. Please see his research and publication page for more information.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 2164B - Communist China from Mao to the Present
HIS 9835B - Rot and Ruin:  History and the Downside of Material Culture

Doctoral Level supervisory privileges


Keith Fleming

Keith Fleming

Position: Associate Professor
Email: kfleming@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84967

Office: LWH 1208
Office Hours: Thursdays 1:30-3:30pm

Research Interests

Professor Fleming is a specialist in Canadian and North American business history, with specific teaching interests in Canadian political history, the history of Ontario, Canada-U.S. relations, and the history of business entrepreneurship.  His current research projects include a history of civil disobedience in Canada, and a history of Ontario spanning the late 16th century to the early 21st century.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 2807F - Entrepreneurship in the US and Canada
HIS 3226G - Canadian Political Leadership
HIS 3227F - Political Protest in Canadian History
HIS 9277B - Themes in Canadian Intellectual History

Doctoral Level supervisory privileges


Monda Halpern

Monda Halpern

Position: Associate Professor
Email: halpern@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84980
Office: LWH 2266
Office Hours: First Term:  Mondays, 12:30-2:00pm
Second Term:  Wednesdays 12:30-2:00pm and by appointment

Research Interests

Professor Halpern specializes in nineteenth and twentieth-century Canadian and American Women's History and Jewish History.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 2181A - Sexual History: Expression, Regulation, and Rights in the West since 1800
HIS 3205E - Identities in Conflict: Canadian Social History Since 1800
HIS 3808F - Jewish Life in North America Since 1880
HIS 9274B - Oh Gendered Canada!  Gender in Canadian History

Doctoral Level supervisory privileges


Michelle A. Hamilton
- Director, M.A. Public History Program

Michelle Hamilton

Position: Associate Professor
Email: mhamilt3@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84973
Office: LWH 1223
Office Hours:  Wednesdays 11:00-1:00pm

Research Interests

Professor Hamilton is a Public Historian whose research focuses on historical and contemporary issues surrounding museums and heritage, social memory and commemoration, cultural identity and issues of representation, usually in regards to Aboriginal peoples in Canada.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 4213F - Life, Love and Death in Early Canada
HIS 9800A - Public History:  Theory, History, Practice (restricted)
HIS 9801B - Public History Group Project (restricted)

Doctoral Level supervisory privileges


Luz Maria Hernández-Sáenz

Luz Maria Mernandez Saenz

Position: Associate Professor
Email: lmhs@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84978
Office: STVH 2124
Office Hours: Thursdays 2:30-4:00pm and by appointment

Research Interests

Professor Hernández-Sáenz is a social historian who specializes in Mexico's medical profession and institutions during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. She is presently working on the influence of French medicine in the organization of health care and sanitation in Mexico.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 1810E - Wars that Changed the World
HIS 3709E - Iberian Empires:  Portugal, Spain and their American Colonies in a Global Context, 1400-1810

Doctoral Level supervisory privileges


Susan Hill (on leave)
- Director, First Nations Studies Program

Susan Hill

Position: Associate Professor
Email: shill26@uwo.ca

Research Interests

Professor Hill's current research interests include cultural and linguistic perspectives on the First Nations through the standpoints and voices of Aboriginal people.

Currently Teaching:

 

Doctoral Level supervisory privileges


Andrew Iarocci

Andrew Iarocci

Position: Adjunct Research Professor
Email: aiarocc@uwo.ca

Research Interests

My research interests encompass twentieth-century warfare, military transportation and procurement, and more generally, the material culture of modern conflict.


Peter V. Krats

Peter V. Krats

Position: Assistant Professor
Email: pkrats@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84983
Office: STVH 2133
Office Hours: Tuesdays 1:30-3:15pm, Wednesdays 5:30-6:15pm or by appointment.

Research Interests

Professor Krats studies the "resource frontier" of provinces, especially Ontario; immigration, notably Finnish, is another interest. He is working on a comparison of "northern resource development" in Michigan's Keweenaw Peninsula and the Sudbury region of Northeastern Ontario.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 2110A- “Rights Revolution” or “Fragile Freedoms”? : Human Rights in Canada
HIS 2120B - Canadian Business and Labour History
HIS 2128B - In Search of Canada: Postwar to Present
HIS 2703F - Inclusion and Exclusion:  Migration and Settler Societies in the US and Canada

                                                         

Non-Thesis supervisory privileges


Amber Lloydlangston

Lloyd Langston

Position: Assistant Professor
Email: alloydla@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84986
Office: LWH 2245
Office Hours: Thursdays 4:00-6:00pm

Research Interests

TBA

Currently Teaching:

HIS 9807B - Introduction to Museology


Robert MacDougall

Robert MacDougall

Position: Associate Professor
Email: rmacdou@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 85305
Office: LWH 2228
Office Hours:  on Sabbatical July - Dec 2017

Research Interests

Professor MacDougall studies the history of the late 19th and 20th century United States with a special focus on the cultural and political history of information, communication, science, and technology.

Currently Teaching:

AS 1020

HIS 9871B - Teaching and Learning History

Doctoral Level Supervisor Privileges


Alan MacEachern
Research Chair

Alan MacEachern

Position: Professor
Email: amaceach@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84993
Office: LWH 2268
Office Hours: Thursdays 9:30-11:30am or by appointment.

Research Interests

Professor MacEachern is an environmental historian of Canada.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 3721G - Climate of the Past, Present and Future
HIS 9833B - Environmental History:  People and Nature Through Time

Doctoral Level Supervisor Privileges


Allyson May

Allyson May

Position: Associate Professor
Email: amay6@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 85272
Office: LWH 1205
Office Hours:  Mondays 1:30-2:30pm or by appointment.

Research Interests

Professor May is a specialist in 18th and 19th century Britain.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 2148B - Police Work and Forensics in Victorian Britain
HIS 3412G - Britain’s Sailors, Soldiers, and Empire: 1689-1902
HIS 4410F - Crime and Society in England, 1800–1900
HIS 9416A - The Victorians at Home: 19th Century Britain

Doctoral Level Supervisor Privileges


Margaret McGlynn

Margaret McGlynn

Position: Associate Professor and Associate Dean (Faculty and Operations, Faculty of Social Science)
Email: mmcglyn@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84981/88099
Office: LWH 1206/ SSC 9438
Office Hours:  By appointment.

Research Interests

Professor McGlynn's current research interests all deal with the relationship between the Church and the law in late medieval and early Tudor England.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 2401E - Medieval Europe

Doctoral Level Supervisor Privileges


Shelley McKellar

Shelley McKellar

Position: Associate Professor
Email: smckell@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84990
Office: LWH 2227
Office Hours: Mondays 2:30 to 3:30 p.m. and by appointment
History of Medicine at Western

Research Interests

Professor McKellar studies the history of medicine and disease, with a special interest in the history of medical technology, instruments and devices, the history of surgery, and medical biography. She is also the curator of the Western Medical Artifact Collection.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 2812 - Pox and Flu:  Disease in Global History

Doctoral Level Supervisor Privileges


Katherine McKenna

Katherine McKenna

Position: Associate Professor
Email: kmckenna@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84979
Office: (Fall) LWH 1204, and (Winter) LWH 3246
Office Hours: (Fall) Tuesdays 11:00am - 12:00pm in LWH 1204; (Winter) Mondays 1:00-2:00pm in LWH 3246 or by appointment

Research Interests

Professor McKenna is a specialist in 18th and early 19th century history of women and gender in the North Atlantic. She also researches in the area of violence against women and children and is developing new work on East African colonial women's and gender history.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 4607G - History of Women and Gender Relations in Africa
HIS 9803A - Critical Moments in Women's and Gender History

Doctoral Level Supervisor Privileges


Francine McKenzie
- Chair, Department of History

Francine McKenzie

Position: Professor
Email: fmckenzi@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84964

Office: LWH 2201B
Office Hours: Tuesdays 1:00-3:00pm or by appointment.

Research Interests

Professor McKenzie’s research interests are in the history of international relations, the history of the British Commonwealth, especially from the perspectives of the so-called periphery (Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa), as well as the history of global trade.

Currently Teaching:

IR 4702E - Contemporary Challenges in the Global Community

Doctoral Level Supervisor Privileges


Brock Millman

Brock Millman

Position: Professor
Email: bmillman@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84975
Office: LWH 2224
Office Hours:  Mondays and Wednesdays 1:00-2:00pm

Research Interests

Professor Millman is currently researching Canadian War Policy in the later war years, and examining, in particular, its domestic sources and its connections with post-war realities.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 2705E - International Relations, 1648 to the Present
HIS 4805E - Warfare

Doctoral Level Supervisor Privileges


Barbara Murison

Barbara Murison

Position: Assistant Professor
Email: bmurison@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84985
Office: LWH 1220
Office Hours: Tuesdays 9:00-11:00am and by appointment.

Research Interests

Professor Murison’s research interests include English and Scottish history in the early modern period, the history of the first British Empire and the Scottish diaspora in all its aspects. She is currently investigating the Scottish Enlightenment’s views on women: were ‘Ancient or Modern Manners’ to be preferred?.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 2405E - Thrones Games:  the English Monarchy from the Anglo-Saxons to the death of Richard III

Master's Level Supervisor Privileges


Eli Nathans

Eli Nathans

Position: Associate Professor
Email: enathans@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84977
Office: LWH 2217
Office Hours:  Tuesdays 1:30-3:30pm and by appointment.

Research Interests

Professor Nathans has published a history of German citizenship policies and an examination of the conduct of a leading official of the Nazi administration of justice. In 2017 Palgrave Macmillan published his analysis of the life and work of a prominent West German radio and television journalist, Peter von Zahn's Cold War Broadcasts to West Germany. Assessing America.  The study focuses on postwar West German debates about the weaknesses and strengths, possibilities and deficiencies, of republican forms of state and society and, in particular, of the United States.  Although Peter von Zahn's American broadcasts date to the 1950s, the subjects on which he focused, the questions he posed, and the insights his work contains, remain relevant to the challenges that continue to face the United States and parliamentary regimes around the world.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 1401E - Modern Europe, 1715 to the Present: Conflict and Transformation
HIS 3402G - Homer to St. Sugustine:  Classic Texts and Debates in Western Culture
HIS 3415E - Modern Germany, 1815 to the Present
HI 9417A - Europe Since the Second World War

 

Doctoral Level Supervisor Privileges


Karen Priestman

Karen Priestman

Position: Assistant Professor
Email: kpriest2@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84922
Office: LWH 2233
Office Hours: Mondays, 2:30-5:30pm, or by appointment

Research Interests

Professor Priestman's research interests include Modern Europe, Nazism, Jewish Studies, and North America.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 1401E - Modern Europe, 1715 to the Present:  Conflict and Transformation
HIS 2147A - Nazi Germany
HIS 2822G - Jewish History from the Spanish Expulsion to the Modern Era
HIS 3427E - The Holocaust
HIS 4445E - The Second World War and the Occupation of Europe, 1938-1949


Nancy Rhoden
Graduate Chair

Nancy Rhoden

Position: Associate Professor
Email: nrhoden@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84970
Office: STVH 2122
Office Hours: Mondays 11:30am-12:30pm and Thursdays 10:30am-11:30am or by appointment

Research Interests

Professor Rhoden is a specialist in colonial British America and the American Revolution, with particular interests in religious and social history.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 2301E - The United States, Colonial Period to the Present
HIS 9307A - Early America and the Atlantic World, 1600 to 1820

Doctoral Level Supervision Privileges


Frank Schumacher

Frank Schumacher

Position: Associate Professor
Email: fschuma@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84987
Office: LWH 2235
Office Hours: Friday 1:30-3:30 or by appointment

Research Interests

Professor Schumacher specializes in international and transnational history with a focus on the role of the United States in world affairs, the history of empires and colonialism, and the global history of genocide and mass violence.

Currently Teaching:

 HIS 3722G- “Killing Fields”: Genocide in Modern History
HIS 3320E - Global America:  The United States in World Affairs, 1700 to the present
HIS 9830A - Colonialism in the 19th and 20th Centuries

Doctoral Level Supervision Privileges


Aldona Sendzikas
- Co-Director, Program in American Studies at Western

Aldona Sendzikas

Position: Associate Professor
Email: asendzi2@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84377
Office: LWH 1222
Office Hours: on Sabbatical 2017-18.  Available by appointment only.  Please e-mail asendzi2@uwo.ca

Research Interests

Professor Sendzikas specializes in 20th century U.S. and military history. Her research interests include the U.S. Submarine Service, particularly during WWII; prisoner of war issues;Canada-U.S. relations; and Cold War culture and society

Currently Teaching:

On Sabbatical 2017-18

Doctoral Level Supervision Privileges


Maya Shatzmiller
- Director, Middle East & North Africa Research Group (MENARG)

Maya Shatzmiller

Position: Professor
Email: maya@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84994

Office: LWH 2229
Office Hours:

Research Interests

Professor Maya Shatzmiller is a specialist in the social and economic history of the medieval Islamic world and author of several books on the subject, among them 'Labour in the Medieval Islamic World' and 'Women's property Rights in 15th century Granada'. Her project of writing the economic history of medieval Islamic societies in several volumes is under way with the current volume devoted to the monetary history.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 2606E - The Making of the Modern Middle East
HIS 2162A - A Basic Introduction to the History of the Middle East
HIS 9601B - Roots of Underdevelopment:  The Economic History of the Islamic Middle East

Doctoral Level Supervision Privileges


Laurel Shire
- Co-Director, Program in American Studies at Western

Laurel Shire

Position: Assistant Professor
Email: lshire@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84991
Office: LWH 2226

Office Hours: Fall Term:  Fridays 12:30-2:30pm

Winter Term:  Wednesdays 10:30-12:30pm

Research Interests

Professor Shire is a social and cultural historian whose research focuses on the United States in the nineteenth century, especially the relationship between race, gender, and U.S. expansion. Her research connects scholarship on North American borderlands, Western and Southern U.S. history, the Atlantic world, Native and African American studies, and women’s history.

Currently Teaching: 

AS 1020

HIS 2135B - African-American History: Racism and the Struggle for Freedom in America
HIS 9050A - American Studies:  Method and Practice
HIS 9718B - Race and Gender on Imperial Frontiers

Doctoral Level Supervision Privileges


Don Spanner

Don Spanner

Position: Assistant Professor
Email: dspanner@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 83645
Office: LWH 2201
Office Hours: By Appointment

Research Interests

Professor Spanner's research interests include Archival Studies, Reference Services and Outreach Development, Conservation and Preservation Management and Ontario History

Currently Teaching:

HIS 9806A - Understanding Archives

 


Geoffrey C. Stewart

Geoffrey C. Stewart

Position: Assistant Professor
Email: gstewa4@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84992
Office: LWH 2237
Office Hours: Wednesdays 12:00-2:00pm or by appointment

Research Interests

I am international historian whose research focuses on the United States in the World, situating America’s global engagement at the intersection of decolonization and the Cold War.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 1810E - Wars that Changed the World
HIS 2131A - The Presidency in American History
HIS 2134B - “Talkin’ ’Bout My Generation”: Youth, Rebellion and Rock ’n’ Roll
HIS 2301E - The United States, Colonial Period to the Present
HIS 3717G - The Global Cold War
IR 2702E - Global Politics since 1945
HIS 9378A - The United States and the Projection of Power in the 20th Century

 


Cary Takagaki

Cary Takagaki

Position: Assistant Professor
Email: ctakagak@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 80155
Office: LWH 2244
Office Hours: Tuesdays 1:00-2:15pm

Research Interests

Professor Takagaki's research interests include East Asian Studies and Japanese Studies.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 1601E - Survey of East Asian History


William J. Turkel

William J. Turkel

Position: Professor
Email: wturkel@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 87433
Office: LWH 2267
Office Hours: on Sabbatical 2017-18

Research Interests

Professor Turkel research interests include computational history, Big History, STS, physical computing, desktop fabrication and electronics.

Currently Teaching:

On Sabbatical 2017-18

Doctoral Level supervisory privileges


Jeffery Vacante

Jeffery Vacante

Position: Assistant Professor
Email: jvacant2@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 89269
Office: LWH 2218
Office Hours: Tuesdays 10:30-11:30am

Research Interests

Professor Vacante is a Canadian historian who specializes in the intellectual, political, and gender history of Quebec. His work examines Quebec nationalism in the twentieth century.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 1807 - Introduction to the History of Business and Commerce
HIS 2171B - Greed is Good:  The History of Modern Capitalism
HIS 2814F - The History of Aviation
HIS 3204G - French Canada
HIS 4701E - Canada and the United States
HIS 9207A - French Canada

Co-Doctoral Level supervisory privileges


Jonathan F.W. Vance
Undergraduate Chair

Jonathan F.W. Vance

Position: Professor
Email: jvance@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84974
Office: LWH 2247
Office Hours: Mondays, 1:00-2:00pm and Wednesdays, 12:00-2:00pm

Research Interests

Professor Vance teaches military history, Canadian history, and social memory. His current research focuses on the First World War, Canadian culture, and prisoners of war. He also curates the Wartime Canada collection.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 1810E - Wars that Changed the World
HIS 2186B - Zombie Apocalypse: Panic and Paranoia from the Black Death to Y2K
HIS 4709E - The First World War: A Revolutionary Experience


Doctoral Level supervisory privileges


Robert Wardhaugh

Robert Wardhaugh

Position: Professor
Email: rwardhau@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84969
Office: LWH 2263
Office Hours: Tuesday, Thursday 10:00-12:00

Research Interests

Professor Wardhaugh is a historian of twentieth-century Canada. His areas include political history and the history of the Prairie West.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 2201E - Canada: Origins to the Present
HIS 4208G - Canada and the Age of Conflict, 1896-1945
HIS 9804A - Canada and Its Historians

Doctoral Level supervisory privileges


Carl F. Young

Carl F. Young

Position: Associate Professor
Email: cyoung73@uwo.ca
Telephone: 519-661-2111 ext. 84910
Office: LWH 2225
Office Hours: Wednesdays 3:30-5:30pm

Research Interests

Professor Young's research interests focus on religious social movements, nationalism, and imperialism in modern Asia, centering especially on Korea and Japan. He also has a strong interest in comparative world history and cross-cultural interaction between different world regions, focusing on Asia as a case study.

Currently Teaching:

HIS 2605E - Survey of Japanese History
HIS 3613G - The Koreans Since 1945
HIS 4603F - Silk Roads and Spice Routes:  Ancient and Medieval Asia and World Contacts

Doctoral Level supervisory privileges